The glycemic index (GI) ranks carbohydrate foods on the basis of how rapidly they affect blood sugar (glucose). Those that raise glucose levels fastest are known as high GI foods and include potatoes, refined white and wheat bread and dried fruits. The breast cancer connection was made by researchers at Sweden's famed Karolinska Institute who collected dietary information from more than 61,000 women in the 1980's. The investigators found that over the course of 17 years, 2,952 of the women developed breast cancer. Those whose diets were highest on the glycemic index had a 44 percent increased risk of developing breast cancer compared to women whose diets were lowest on the glycemic index. Women whose diets were highest in glycemic load (a measure based both on GI and on how many grams of carbohydrate a normal serving actually contains) had an 81 percent increased risk of breast cancer; women with the highest carbohydrate intake had a 34 percent increased risk, compared to those whose carb intake was lowest. The researchers suggested that high glycemic load diets may increase breast cancer risk by boosting concentrations of insulin and sex hormones, which may contribute to breast cancer development. The study was published in the July 2009 issue of the International Journal of Cancer.
Sugar is now healthy and natural? Once reviled as the bane of teeth and waistlines, cane and beet sugar are now enjoying something of a renaissance in processed foods, and are being touted as natural and healthful. A recent story in the New York Times (March, 2009) pointed out that sugar is replacing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in products such as the tomato sauce on a Pizza Hut pizza called "The Natural," and in a new soda called "Pepsi Natural."
My take: Cane or beet sugar is, I believe, somewhat better for you than is HFCS. There is evidence that the latter sweetener is more likely to promote weight gain, and it may also disturb liver function. So replacing HFCS with cane or beet sugars in processed foods is indeed a modest improvement.
But "real" sugar is just the lesser of two evils here, and it is definitely possible to consume too much, leading to weight gain, type 2 diabetes and a host of other ills. One of the best moves you can make for your health is to get away from concentrated, processed sweeteners of all kinds and learn to appreciate the natural sweetness of fruits and other whole foods. In the meantime, perhaps the best aspect of this "real sugar" renaissance is the fact that the stuff is more expensive to manufacture than is HFCS from subsidized corn, which means perhaps we'll see less sweetening of any kind used in foods.
The licorice is to help prevent the sore throat that often follows surgery. A small study from India suggests that gargling with licorice before general anesthesia reduces the risk of sore throat when you wake up. The researchers divided 40 patients undergoing spinal operations into two groups. Patients in one group gargled with a licorice solution five minutes before their anesthesia; patients in the other group gargled with plain water. After surgery, only four patients in the licorice group complained of sore throat compared to 15 from the water group. After 24 hours, only two patients from the licorice group still had a sore throat compared to nine from the water group. The study was published in the July 2009 issue of Anesthesia & Analgesia.
In California, researchers found that melatonin given before their operations was helpful for children's recovery from surgery. It didn't do much to ease their anxiety beforehand, but it did reduce the incidence of post-op delirium that occurs in up to 20 percent of children who undergo surgery. The immediate symptoms seen in the recovery room include crying, thrashing and the need for restraint. Later, behavioral changes including nightmares, bed wetting and separation anxiety can occur. The study was published in the July 2009 issue of Anesthesiology.
Traditional Chinese herbal medicines can help relieve the pain of endometriosis as well as the prescription drugs normally used, and they also cause fewer side effects. British researchers who reviewed two trials that included a total of 158 women found that a preparation of Chinese herbs provided relief comparable to the drug gestrinone with fewer side effects. They also reported that another Chinese herbal formula was more effective than the hormonal drug danazol and also caused fewer side effects.
In both cases the combination of Chinese herbs were given after the women had undergone laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis. Standard drug treatments for this gynecological disorder can cause hot flashes, acne and weight gain. The investigators concluded that these particular combinations of Chinese herbs appear to be as effective as conventional drug treatments for women with endometriosis, although the lead researcher said that additional evidence from other studies is needed to confirm the findings of the two they reviewed.
Endometriosis affects as many as one in six women of reproductive age. It can cause pelvic pain, irregular and painful periods and infertility. Current conventional treatments - both drugs and surgery - don't always help long-term. The review of the two studies was published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and published online this past July, 2009.
Lost your focus? Do what Mom advised: Go play outside!
Specifically, go walk in nature, rather than a city. An experiment published in the journal Psychological Science gave volunteers memory and attention tests, then sent them out on a walk. Sometimes there were told to ambulate in the university’s urban home of Ann Arbor. Other times, they were instructed to walk through a nearby arboretum.
When participants returned from the nature walk, they showed a 20 percent improvement in the tests, but they showed no improvement when they returned from the urban walks.
This makes perfect sense. Our brains evolved in natural, low-noise, low-visual-contrast wilderness settings; not the relentless high-stimulation environments of our offices, technology-stuffed homes, or urban cityscapes. It is only natural that we shut down our ability to focus and take in stimuli in assaultive environments, and, conversely, replenish our ability to "open up" and focus in nature. So tell your boss - if he or she wants you to be more productive, you need to take a walk. Better yet, invite the boss to come along!
Millions of people around the world are making small but significant changes to help sustain our ecosystem every day. Want to join them, and help make the earth a healthier place to live? It's simple - try these tips, courtesy of www.earthday.net:
- Replace regular light bulbs with energy efficient ones - they use less electricity, resulting in lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions
- Drive less, get regular tune-ups and consider a hybrid car - all can reduce CO2 levels and improve fuel efficiency
- Eat locally farmed foods that are grown organically. It takes less energy to get them to market and organic farming uses no pesticides
- Buy recycled products - and recycle your trash. In addition, steer clear of products that use excessive packaging
Small steps and individual responsibility can make a huge difference all over the world - get started today, and encourage others to do the same!
Even if you live far from city life and are surrounded by trees and plants that help filter out environmental contaminants, it's nearly impossible to escape indoor air pollution. You can help prevent exposure to air pollution in your home with these simple steps:
- Buy an air purifier, one with a HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filter.
- Add living plants to your home.
- Get rid of contributors to indoor pollution such as aerosol sprays, paints, incense and chemical products.
In addition, I recommend you help neutralize the effects of inhaling pollutants by eating lots of fresh, organic fruits and vegetables and prudently supplementing with a high-quality antioxidant.
When some people hear the word "greens," they immediately conjure up childhood memories of overcooked canned spinach they were forced to eat and hated. But the vegetable section of the grocery is a different world today, brimming with a variety of greens such as Swiss chard, kale, mustard, collards and bok choy that are tasty as well as excellent sources of vitamins and minerals. Iron, calcium and folic acid (an important B vitamin that helps prevent birth defects and offers protection from heart disease) are abundant in these leafy veggies. Greens can have strong tastes, but I encourage you to experiment with varieties you've never tried or haven't had in a while. You'll be in for a pleasant surprise.
Food as Medicine
Turmeric, one of the spices traditionally used to make curry, has a long history of medicinal uses in both Chinese and Indian healing systems. Its anti-inflammatory action has been employed by traditional practitioners to treat conditions including flatulence, jaundice, menstrual problems, toothache and bruises.
1 pound spinach, kale, collards or beet greens (or mixture of all)
2 cloves garlic, pressed or minced
2-3 tablespoons curry powder
1 cup finely chopped tomatoes (fresh or canned)
1 tablespoon tomato paste
1 tablespoon dark-brown sugar
1 tablespoon expeller-pressed canola oil
1 cup onion, finely diced
3/4 pound brown potatoes, peeled and cubed
1/4 cup chopped fresh cilantro (optional)
1. Wash and drain greens, removing any coarse stems and midribs. Cut into half-inch strips.
2. In a small bowl, mix together the garlic, curry powder, tomatoes, tomato paste and sugar.
3. Heat the canola oil in a skillet and sauté onion over medium-high heat until it begins to brown. Add the spice-and-tomato mixture, mix well, and cook for a few minutes.
4. Add the potatoes and 2 cups water.
5. Mix well, bring to a boil, reduce heat, cover, and cook for 10 minutes.
6. Add greens and cook for 10 minutes more, or until potatoes are done.
7. Correct season, serve, and enjoy!