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Tuesday
Oct142014

Can Skipping Breakfast Ruin Your Diet?

The latest word on this subject is “no.” The question of whether or not skipping breakfast is key to weight loss has been asked and answered in any number of studies and the answers have often been contradictory. The latest effort to determine whether or not eating breakfast has an impact on weight loss came from the University of Alabama, where researchers looked at the effect of eating or skipping breakfast on 309 healthy overweight and obese people ages 20 to 65. One group was asked to eat breakfast before 10 a.m. while those in another group were asked not to eat anything before 11 a.m. A third group, divided between people who habitually skipped breakfast and those who always ate it, was not given any instruction about whether or not to eat the morning meal. None of the participants was on a strict weight loss plan, but all were trying to lose weight independently. After 16 weeks, skipping or eating breakfast had no discernible effect on weight loss. Study leader Emily Dhurandhar, Ph.D., said future studies would be aimed at understanding “why eating or skipping breakfast did not influence weight loss, despite evidence that breakfast may influence appetite and metabolism.”

Sources:
Emily J. Dhurandhar et al, “The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss: a randomized controlled trial,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,
doi: 10.3945/ ajcn.114.089573

Monday
Oct132014

How Hard Are You Really Working Out?

A new Canadian study suggests that most adults are clueless about the intensity of their exercise. Researchers from Toronto’s York University recruited 129 inactive Canadians ages 18 to 64 to see what they know about strenuous workouts. Canadian guidelines specify that during moderate exercise your pulse rate should rise to between 64 to 76 percent of your maximum heart rate, and for vigorous exercise between 77 and 90 percent. U.S. guidelines say you should be able to "talk but not sing" during moderate exercise, and not be able to say more than a few words without pausing for breath during vigorous exercise.

Once they positioned their volunteers on treadmills, the Canadian researchers found that few were able to achieve and maintain a heart rate of 65 percent of their maximum during what they believed was moderate exercise, and even fewer were able to maintain a heart rate of 75 percent of maximum when they believed they were exercising vigorously. The researchers found that during every test, participants overestimated the intensity of their exercise.

To determine whether you’re meeting your intensity goals, you should take your pulse frequently during exercise, and if it remains below 65 percent of your maximum heart rate, step it up! The researchers also noted that the most accurate way to calculate your maximum heart rate is to subtract 64 percent of your age from 211.

My take? I don’t think it is necessary to calculate your target heart rate and take your pulse frequently during aerobic exercise to reap its benefits. I feel such monitoring can make workouts less enjoyable. If exercise is not fun, or if you do not see benefits from it fairly quickly, your motivation to continue may erode. If a period of aerobic exercise does not leave you feeling that you have labored, with your heart beating faster and your breathing stimulated, you likely have not performed it vigorously enough. If it leaves you collapsed on the ground painfully gasping for breath, you've probably overdone it. I think most people can figure out the right level of intensity without taking their pulse, consulting tables and charts, and worrying about whether they are in the target heart rate zone.

Sources:
Jennifer L. Kuk, “Individuals Underestimate Moderate and Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity,” PLOS One, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097927

Friday
Oct102014

What Supplement Do You Feel You Need Most? (Poll)

A recent Q&A discussed vitamins and supplements for seniors and whether seniors need specific nutrients: Do Seniors Need Special Vitamins? Check out the article and let us know what vitamins and minerals you feel you need the most in your diet.

Thursday
Oct092014

Exercise for a Better Microbiome

Exercise could boost the diversity of the microbes in your gut, and eating a lot of protein might help, as well. A diverse “microbiome,” as this population of microbes is called, is necessary for optimal functioning of our immune systems, and supports overall health. By examining blood and stool samples, researchers in Ireland were able to compare the microbial diversity of professional rugby players with those of healthy men, some of normal weight and some overweight. They found that the athletes, overall, had greater gut diversity than the other men, which they attributed to the players’ strenuous exercise and diets that were higher in protein (22 percent of calories) compared to 15 to 16 percent of calories from protein the other men consumed daily. The athletes’ microbiomes were not only more diverse, the researchers reported that they were more populous than those of the other men in the study, and included higher levels of a species of bacteria associated with lower rates of obesity and obesity-related disorders. Whether exercise or protein or both were responsible for the diversity of the rugby players’ microbiomes remains to be confirmed by future studies, but this investigation certainly showed an intriguing association.

Sources:
Siobhan Clark and Orla O’Sullivan, et al, “Exercise and associated dietary extremes impact on gut microbial diversity,” Gut, doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306541

Wednesday
Oct082014

Paprika - Spices in the Kitchen (Video)

Dr. Weil discusses the health benefits of this paprika, a popular spice known for its distinct smoky flavor. Paprika comes from sun-dried peppers and has been traditionally used for treating digestive issues, circulatory issues, cramps and fever. As a topical applicant, it has been used for reducing arthritis pain, muscle spasms, and even shingles. Paprika adds color to many foods and is used in a wide variety of dishes.

Want new videos from Dr. Weil? Subscribe to his YouTube channel for weekly videos!

Tuesday
Oct072014

Less Red Meat for Less Breast Cancer

The less red meat a woman eats, the lower her risk of breast cancer. That conclusion comes from data on almost 89,000 women between the ages of 26 and 45 participating in the 20-year Nurses Health Study. Results of the analysis showed that the risk of breast cancer began to rise when women ate 1.5 servings of red meat a week. Just that extra half serving bumped up breast cancer risk by 22 percent, the study found. Each additional daily serving of red meat seemed to increase the risk by another 13 percent. The review also showed that replacing a daily serving of red meat with fish, legumes, nuts, poultry or a combination of those foods appeared to lower the breast cancer risk by 14 percent. Switching from a serving of red meat to one of poultry cut the risk by 17 percent overall and by 24 percent among postmenopausal women. This study doesn’t prove that eating red eat causes breast cancer. Rather, it shows an association between eating red meat (or not eating it) and breast cancer risk.

Sources:
Maryam Farvid et al, “Dietary protein sources in early adulthood and breast cancer incidence: prospective cohort study,” BMJ 2014; 348 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g3437 (Published 10 June 2014)

Monday
Oct062014

Walk Away from Knee Arthritis

If arthritis in your knees is slowing you down, walking more, rather than less, may help keep you on the go. For those that are multitasking, part of the solution may be a pedometer (or cell phone app) that counts your daily steps. When they add up to 6,000, arthritis in the knee begins to improve, and the risk of disability declines, according to a new study from Boston University. Every step you take throughout the day counts toward your 6,000, the study found. Author Daniel White, a research assistant professor in the department of physical therapy and athletic training, says that when most people walk, they average 100 steps per minute, which means that if you were to do your 6,000 steps all at once, you would spend an hour walking. The research included 1,800 adults who had knee arthritis or were at risk of the problem and were already participating in an ongoing osteoarthritis study. White explained that the investigation was aimed at determining the fewest daily steps that would help people with knee arthritis remain mobile. If you're not in good shape, he suggests setting an initial goal of 3,000.

My take? In combination with daily exercise (walking counts), losing at least 10 percent of your weight, if you're overweight, can help go a long way toward relieving the pain of knee arthritis and improving mobility. In addition to weight loss and exercise, I recommend making some specific dietary changes to help reduce the inflammation and pain of osteoarthritis. Research has shown that foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids and the spices ginger and turmeric may be especially beneficial. And foods rich in antioxidants - plentifully found in most vegetables and fruit - may help reduce tissue damage from inflammation.

Sources:
Daniel K. White et al, “Daily walking and the risk of incident functional limitation in knee OA: An observational study,” Arthritis Care & Research, doi: 10.1002/acr.22362.

Friday
Oct032014

What Time Do You Typically Exercise? (Poll)

A recent Q&A discussed when the best time is to exercise: Best Time for Exercise? Check out the article and let us know when you typically exercise during the day.